The People's Republic of China
China is officially known as the People's Republic of China. The land territories of China consist of mainland China and its coastal islands, Taiwan and its affiliated islands including the Diaoyu Islands, the Penghu Islands, the Dongsha Islands, the Paracel Islands, the Zhongsha Islands, the Nansha Islands and everything else belongs to the People's Republic of China (including the Diaoyu Islands, Yellow Tail Island, Red Tail Island).
China is officially known as the People's Republic of China. The land territories of China consist of mainland China and its coastal islands, Taiwan and its affiliated islands including the Diaoyu Islands, the Penghu Islands, the Dongsha Islands, the Paracel Islands, the Zhongsha Islands, the Nansha Islands and everything else belongs to the People's Republic of China (including the Diaoyu Islands, Yellow Tail Island, Red Tail Island). The total are of China is about 9.6 million square kilometers. The jurisdiction of the sea area is about 300 million square kilometers.
On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao declared the founding of the People's Republic of China. The population of China now is about 1.3 billion (in 2010), as the world's largest population. Beijing is the capital of the country. China is an ancient oriental country with a long history. Chinese civilization and ancient Egyptian civilization, ancient Greek civilization, ancient Indian civilization and ancient Babylon civilization together constitute the human civilization on the planet. What’s important is that although the Chinese civilization went through dynastic change, national integration and war turbulence, but reproduction and development of it has not been broken. Regardless of language, culture, literature, art or architectural style, all can be traced back to the ancient civilization of their styles. Therefore, China has very rich historical and cultural tourism resources. No matter the ancient Yin Ruins of Terra-cotta Warriors & Horses of Qin Dynasty, the stretching Great Wall, majestic the Forbidden City, or the charm of the ancient town and streets... all this can allow visitors to appreciate the historical accumulation and the charm of Chinese culture.
As a vast country in the world, the wide territory of China carries a variety of terrains, landform and climate. In China, people can either prance on the prairie grasslands; go west into the stretching deserts in Xinjiang, listening to a long echo of camel bells in the river sunset; take adventure tour to Tibet, the nearest place to the sky and the purest paradise on earth. In China, people can not only travel to the fairyland on earth - Jiuzhaigou, to witness the charming and color of water, but also can to pay worship visit to Mount Tai - one of the most famous mountain in China. In China, people can have a leisure holiday in Hainan with blue sea and silver sand, lying on a beach chair to take a break from the hustle and bustle of life... The nature has provided various wonders and endless beauty to China.
China has also a variety of folk culture. The traditional forms of art include poetry, drama, calligraphy, Chinese painting, etc. Traditional Chinese festivals have the Spring Festival(Chinese Lunar New Year), Lantern Festival, Tomb-sweeping Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, the Double Ninth Festival, etc.
China has a huge population of over one billion, and it supports 21% of the world's population with 9% of the world's cultivable land. With a territory of about 9,634,057 square kilometers, Chinese people scatter and live every inches of this land. In China, an idiom says although Chinese people may eat the same kind of rice, they can grow up into different kinds of people finally. Due to geographic limitation and other reasons, China is inhabited with decades of nationalities.
According to governmental statistics, by the end of 2017, China has a population of about 1,390,000,000 in mainland, excluding the population in Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong and overseas Chinese. It has a newly-born population of about 17,230,000 and a death population of about 9,860,000. In term of population structure, the population of people aged 0-15 is about 247,190,000, accounting for 17.8% of the total population, the number of people aged 16-59 amounts to about 901,990,000, accounting for about 64.9 % of the total, and the population of people aged 60 and above is about 240,900,000, taking up 17.3% of the total. In term of urban and rural structure, the urban population is about 813,470,000, and takes up about 58.52% of the total population. In 2017, Hong Kong has a population of about 7,400,000, Macau has a population of about 653,000, and Taiwan has a population of about 23,1600,000.
Usually, we say that China has 56 ethnic groups, but in fact, China has more ethnic groups. 56 ethnic groups are identified and confirmed by the central government, and there are over 730 thousand of people whose ethnic status haven’t been identified and confirmed. The 56 ethnic groups have a comparably big population, some ethnic groups not in the 56 ethnic groups have a very small population. In the 56 ethnic groups, Han nationality is the biggest ethnic group, and other ethnic groups are also called ethnic minorities. Ethnic groups do not live in only one place, and they are in all over the China. Thousands of years ago, people move from one place to another because of war, disasters like drought and flood, or others. Since the opening to the world, and China completely dedicates itself to develop economy, the mobility of population has accelerated. Now, almost in every city, there are various ethnic groups living together. But still there are some regions where one nationality in compact communities, like the Zhuang in Guangxi, the Tibetan in Tibet, the Ulghur in Xinjiang, the Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, and the Hui in Ningxia.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 1,159.40 millions of people or 91.59 percent are of Han nationality, and 106.43 millions of people or 8.41 percent are of various ethnic minorities. Among all ethnic minorities, there are 18 ethnic groups with a population over one million respectively, and they are the Mongol, Hui, Tibetan, Ulghur, Miao, Zhuang, Dong, Yao, Bai, ect. The Zhuang nationality is the biggest ethnic minority with a population over 16 million. Some ethnic minorities have a population less than ten thousand.